Modes of Winding Up of a Company

Winding up of a company refers to the process of closing down its operations and liquidating its assets. This can occur due to various reasons, such as insolvency, inability to pay debts, or the completion of the company’s objectives. The Companies Act provides for different modes of winding up, each with its own set of procedures and implications. In this article, we will explore the different modes of winding up a company and discuss their key features and requirements.

1. Voluntary Winding Up

Voluntary winding up is initiated by the members or shareholders of a company when they believe that the company has achieved its objectives or is unable to continue its operations. There are two types of voluntary winding up:

a) Members’ Voluntary Winding Up

Members’ voluntary winding up is applicable when the company is solvent, meaning it is able to pay its debts in full within a period not exceeding 12 months from the commencement of winding up. The decision to wind up the company must be made by a special resolution passed by the members, and a liquidator is appointed to oversee the winding up process.

For example, if a technology startup has successfully achieved its goals and the shareholders decide to wind up the company, they can opt for a members’ voluntary winding up.

b) Creditors’ Voluntary Winding Up

Creditors’ voluntary winding up is applicable when the company is insolvent, meaning it is unable to pay its debts in full. In this case, the decision to wind up the company is made by the members, but it is subject to the approval of the creditors. A meeting of the creditors is held, and they have the power to appoint a liquidator of their choice.

For instance, if a retail company is facing financial difficulties and is unable to pay its suppliers and creditors, the shareholders may decide to wind up the company through a creditors’ voluntary winding up.

2. Compulsory Winding Up

Compulsory winding up is a court-driven process initiated by a creditor, shareholder, or the company itself. It occurs when the company is unable to pay its debts and is deemed insolvent. The court issues a winding-up order, and a liquidator is appointed to take control of the company’s assets and distribute them among the creditors.

There are several grounds on which a company can be compulsorily wound up, including:

  • Failure to pay debts exceeding a specified amount within 21 days of receiving a statutory demand
  • Proven inability to pay debts
  • Conducting business with fraudulent or unlawful intent
  • Continuously carrying on business at a loss

For example, if a construction company fails to pay its subcontractors and suppliers despite receiving multiple demands, a creditor can file a petition for the compulsory winding up of the company.

3. Winding Up by the Tribunal

Winding up by the tribunal is a mode of winding up that is initiated by the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) in India. The NCLT has the power to wind up a company if it is of the opinion that it is just and equitable to do so. This mode of winding up is typically used in cases where there is a deadlock among the shareholders or a breakdown in the management of the company.

For instance, if the directors of a company are unable to agree on important business decisions, resulting in a stalemate, the NCLT may order the winding up of the company.

4. Summary Winding Up

Summary winding up is a simplified and expedited mode of winding up that is applicable to small companies. It is available when a company meets certain criteria, such as having a paid-up share capital of not more than a specified amount and having no outstanding debts. The winding up process is carried out by the company’s directors, without the need for a liquidator.

For example, if a small family-owned business decides to cease operations and has no outstanding debts, the directors can opt for a summary winding up.


Winding up a company is a complex process that requires careful consideration and adherence to legal procedures. The mode of winding up chosen by the company can have significant implications for its stakeholders, including shareholders, creditors, and employees. It is important for companies to seek professional advice and understand the specific requirements and consequences of each mode of winding up before making a decision.


1. Can a company be wound up if it is still profitable?

No, a company can only be wound up if it is insolvent or unable to pay its debts. If a company is still profitable and able to meet its financial obligations, there is no need for it to be wound up.

2. What is the role of a liquidator in the winding up process?

A liquidator is appointed to oversee the winding up process and ensure that the company’s assets are properly liquidated and distributed among the creditors. The liquidator also has the power to investigate the affairs of the company and take legal action against any parties involved in fraudulent or unlawful activities.

3. Can a company continue its operations during the winding up process?

Generally, a company ceases its operations once the winding up process has commenced. However, in certain cases, the court or the liquidator may allow the company to continue its operations for a limited period if it is in the best interest of the creditors or if it will facilitate the winding up process.

4. How long does the winding up process typically take?

The duration of the winding up process can vary depending on various factors, such as the complexity of the company’s affairs, the number of creditors involved, and any legal disputes that may arise. In general, the winding up process can take several months to several years to complete.

5. What happens to the employees of a company during the winding up process?

During the winding up process, the employees of a company may be terminated. However, they are entitled to certain rights and benefits, such as unpaid wages, gratuity, and compensation for termination. The liquidator is responsible for ensuring that the employees’ rights are protected and that they receive their entitlements.