क्या है 26 November 2023 को?

26 November 2023 marks an important milestone in the history of India as it commemorates Constitution Day or Samvidhan Divas. This day holds immense significance as it honors the adoption of the Constitution of India by the Constituent Assembly in 1949, which came into effect on 26 January 1950, thereby solidifying India's status as a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic. The Constitution of India is the supreme law of the land, guiding the country's governance and laying down the framework for fundamental political principles, establishing the structure, procedures, powers, and duties of the government institutions, and setting out the rights and duties of citizens.

Significance of Constitution Day:

1. Celebrating Democracy: Constitution Day serves as a reminder of the values enshrined in the Indian Constitution, including democracy, justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity. It celebrates the spirit of democracy and the rights of citizens as guaranteed by the Constitution.

2. Upholding the Rule of Law: By honoring Constitution Day, India reaffirms its commitment to upholding the rule of law and ensuring that all institutions and individuals operate within the legal framework outlined by the Constitution.

3. Educating Citizens: This day provides an opportunity to educate citizens, especially students, about the Constitution, its history, key features, and the rights and duties it confers upon them. It helps in creating awareness about the importance of preserving and protecting the Constitution.

4. Reflecting on Nation-Building: Constitution Day encourages reflection on the journey of nation-building, the challenges faced, and the progress made in upholding the principles and values laid down by the Constitution. It serves as a moment to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the democratic system.

5. Inspiring Patriotism: Commemorating Constitution Day instills a sense of pride and patriotism among citizens by recognizing the document that guides the nation's principles, governance, and aspirations. It reminds citizens of their role in upholding the Constitution and contributing to the country's progress.

Evolution of the Constitution:

The drafting of the Indian Constitution was a momentous task undertaken by the Constituent Assembly under the chairmanship of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. The Assembly deliberated on various provisions, borrowed from different constitutions around the world, to create a unique document tailored to India's diverse needs and aspirations. The final text of the Constitution was adopted on 26 November 1949, with the framing committee signing two hand-written copies on 24 January 1950.

Key Features of the Indian Constitution:

1. Preamble: The Preamble of the Indian Constitution outlines the basic structure and objectives of the document, emphasizing justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity.

2. Fundamental Rights: Part III of the Constitution guarantees fundamental rights to all citizens, including the right to equality, freedom of speech, right to life, and personal liberty.

3. Directive Principles of State Policy: Part IV of the Constitution provides guidelines for the state in creating a welfare state, promoting social justice, and upholding the rights of marginalized sections.

4. Fundamental Duties: The 42nd Amendment introduced Part IVA, which lays down the fundamental duties of citizens to promote a spirit of patriotism and uphold the ideals of the Constitution.

5. Federal Structure: The Constitution establishes a federal structure of government with a division of powers between the Union and State governments, as outlined in the Seventh Schedule.

6. Independent Judiciary: The Constitution ensures the independence of the judiciary to uphold the rule of law and protect the rights of citizens through judicial review.

7. Amendments: The Constitution provides for its own amendment to adapt to changing circumstances, with provisions for both simple and special majority requirements based on the nature of the amendment.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

Q1. Why is Constitution Day celebrated on 26 November?
Constitution Day is celebrated on 26 November to commemorate the day on which the Constitution of India was adopted by the Constituent Assembly in 1949.

Q2. What is the significance of the Indian Constitution?
The Indian Constitution is significant as it lays down the framework for governance, protects the rights of citizens, establishes the principles of democracy, and guides the nation's progress.

Q3. What is the role of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar in the framing of the Constitution?
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar chaired the Drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution and played a pivotal role in shaping its provisions, ensuring social justice, equality, and individual rights.

Q4. How does the Constitution protect fundamental rights?
The Constitution guarantees fundamental rights to all citizens, including the right to equality, freedom of speech, right to life, and personal liberty, which are enforceable by the courts.

Q5. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy?
The Directive Principles of State Policy provide guidelines for the government to create a welfare state, promote social justice, and uphold the rights of marginalized sections, though they are not enforceable by courts.

Q6. Can the Constitution of India be amended?
Yes, the Constitution of India can be amended to adapt to changing circumstances or address new issues, with provisions for both simple and special majority requirements based on the nature of the amendment.

Q7. How does the Constitution establish a federal structure of government?
The Constitution divides powers between the Union and State governments, with delineated lists in the Seventh Schedule outlining the subjects on which each level of government can legislate.

Q8. What are the Fundamental Duties of citizens under the Constitution?
The Fundamental Duties, introduced by the 42nd Amendment, outline the responsibilities of citizens to promote a spirit of patriotism, uphold the ideals of the Constitution, and protect public property.

Q9. Is the judiciary in India independent?
Yes, the judiciary in India is independent of the executive and legislative branches of government, ensuring that it can uphold the rule of law, protect citizens' rights, and provide checks and balances.

Q10. How has the Indian Constitution evolved since its adoption?
The Indian Constitution has evolved through amendments to address contemporary issues, reinterpretation of its provisions by the judiciary, and changes in societal norms, ensuring its relevance over time.

Conclusion:

Constitution Day on 26 November is a momentous occasion to celebrate the guiding principles of the Indian Constitution, honor the vision of the framers of the Constitution, and recommit to upholding the values of democracy, liberty, equality, and justice. It serves as a reminder of the foundational document that shapes the governance and aspirations of the nation, reflecting the collective will of the people and their commitment to a just and inclusive society. As citizens of India, it is crucial to understand the significance of the Constitution, safeguard its principles, and actively participate in the democratic process to nurture a vibrant and progressive nation.